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In humans, polymorphisms of MnSOD have been associated with type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and the onset of prostate cancer [ 1011 ]. Due to its necessary antioxidant role in biological systems, characterization of the catalytic mechanism of MnSOD has been the goal of many research groups.

However, the atomic mechanism has been elusive because of 1 the fast reaction rate of MnSOD; 2 the high reactivity and short half-life Superderivate FX Variants superoxide; and 3 the difficulties in detecting protons and protonation states of amino acids in an enzyme [ 1213 ]. This review describes the current knowledge of the MnSOD mechanism and ongoing studies, with a focus on the human variant for its medical relevance.

Several articles review other SOD mechanisms [ 41415 ]. Cells undergoing oxidative stress are susceptible to transformation and metastasis in a wide variety of cell types [ 17 ]. This is partly due to superoxide acting as a signaling molecule to induce cell division and proliferation [ 18 ].

Gotic Contact with Latin, Gotica Parisina and Wulfila's Alphabet

Articles of this special issue discuss the roles of oxidative stress, superoxide, and SODs in cancer [ 192021 ], and further reviews describe how oxidative stress influences disease states [ 22232425 ]. Therapeutic approaches in pre-clinical and clinical studies have arisen from the ability Superderivate FX Variants MnSOD to decrease levels of superoxide and mitigate oxidative stress. There are three types of therapeutics: 1 MnSOD as an administered drug; 2 MnSOD expression as a transgene; or 3 as a small molecule mimetic [ 162627 ].

MnSOD administration has been tested for irradiation protection, immunosuppression for transplantations, reduction of inflammation, and fibrosis in vivo in rats and humans [ 282930 ]. While using MnSOD for treatments has shown promising results, practical issues arise from the short half-life of the enzyme 6 min due to rapid renal clearance [ 31 ]. First, all three alphabets, Greek, Latin, and runic, are related somehow, and, although we do not know exactly how, this fact explains that they share a number of common traits.

Second, if we trace every trait of Wulfila's alphabet to Greek, Latin, or runic letters, we end up claiming that it is devoid of any specifically Gothic traits, i. The unproblematic lettersThe correspondence of uncial Greek and Gothic letters is shown in the table in 3. Generally in Greek it has the form of a narrow loop or the eye of a needle.

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It has only consonantal value in Gothic, [h, χ], and it is used to denote the spiritus asper. Even though Greek eta was not used to denote aspiration in Wulfila's time, he obviously knew that it once had been so used.

Maybe he thought that he was restoring the original sound value of the letter. In any case, it is unnecessary to refer to Latin or to runes for explanation. In Greek cursive alphabets, there is no lack of variants with an h-like shape see ThompsonHarrauer The eighteenth letter is silent and has the numerical value '90' like its Greek counterpart.

In the S-Type, it is from Latin. The problem is -as already mentioned -how it was pronounced in Biblical Gothic, as [i] in foreign words but as [ʋ] in native words?

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Lwstrws for Λύστροις, 2 Timothyi. This appears to be what we can conclude from the Gotica Parisina although one can ask if that is a reliable source. The twenty-seventh letter is from Greek. The problematic lettersAgain, I refer to the table in 3 where the cases of dubious correspondences with Greek and Gothic letters are marked with white circles.

It means that there is some problem with the correspondence of the figure or sound value, or both.

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But he knew this letter as the numeral '6', ϛ. Maybe Wulfila was hesitant to assign a sound to a letter that was silent in Greek, and perhaps he also knew that the letter digamma had not always been silent cf. Seebold John Benjamins Publishing Company All rights reserved magnús snaedal ries in Thompson or Harrauer Is it just a coincidence that one finds an almost perfect match?

One possibility is that this is a relic from a pre-Wulfilian attempt to write Gothic with Greek letters, and that it was retained as an idiosyncratic trait of Wulfila's alphabet.

In any case, this explanation is more easily understandable than others. Wagnerfor example, suggests that Wulfila metamorphosed Θ into V by opening the circle at the top and lengthening the point to a long vertical main stroke.

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Boüüaert rejects this, but Ebbinghaus Ebbinghaus : 27 [ apparently accepts it. All other variants have arms, but the arms are considerably lower than the main stroke.

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Such a derivation is, perhaps, not excluded cf. Ebbinghaus Ebbinghaus : 28 [ if the letter was originally given a new sound value and its figure altered somewhat. These letters were not used as such.

Rather, only their positions were filled with new letters. It is possible that this was done already in the first round by Wulfila, although it could also be a later development.

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The following scenario should be considered at least as a possibility. The Vindobonensian alphabets show that these three letters were also used by the Visigoths if we accept, with Falluomini 35that those variants of Wulfila's alphabet are not Ostrogothic. It is most often maintained that Wulfila took this letter from the runes. It is composed of two strokes but open at the bottom. For some reason, this was not used by Wulfila. Snaedaltable 3. The only difference is the higher main stroke with the two 'hooks' in the middle of it.

This would indicate runic origin according to Gutenbrunner By accident, this letter does not occur in the deeds, the only Gothic documents written in cursive or, rather, semi-cursive. Also, a cursive form of psi resembling this letter is non-existent.

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Ebbinghaus Ebbinghaus : 28 [ and Wagner suggest that the outer arms of psi were bent into a circle, and then the vertical stroke shrank to a mere point. The shape of psi in the cursive and uncial Greek alphabet is a cross, more often with the arms slightly lifted.

Apparently, though, the letter is a defect and was never properly written because of a ridge in the papyrus. I wish to thank the staff at the British Library and the staff at Ancient History, KU Leuven, for their assistance and for providing me with photos of the two papyri mentioned. This can be checked in Kenyon xxxvii,plate andxxiii,plate It appears to be more common that the end pointing down in Gothic is pointing up in Greek and in Latin also.

This was a logical step. Ebbinghaus cf.

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Ebbinghaus : 25 [but neither that question nor the questions connected to the names of letters found in the Gotica Vindobonensia will be dealt with in the present paper. It is possible that some of the variant letters in the first alphabet of Codex Vindobonensis were local 6. One asks if there is evidence that Wulfila and his contemporaries attempted to connect phonetic features to the shape of each letter in this manner.

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A Review of the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Manganese Superoxide Dismutase

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Magnús Snædal IntroductionSeveral issues could be dealt with under the heading "Gothic contact with Latin". Loan words may come to mind first. Greek loans in Gothic that are older than Gothic Christianity are very few. More numerous are the pre-Christian loans from Latin, as can be seen in Jellinek's study.

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